Vehicle emission, industrial pollutants take PM10 to dangerous levels

An Indian Institute of Technology , Bombay study has found that for every 10 lakh people in Pune, 900 are admitted to hospital each year for respiratory diseases and over 300 for cardiovascular diseases.

The most harmful pollutant that contributes to a majority of the pollution-related deaths and diseases are PM10.

This is a mixture of solids and liquid droplets floating in the air. Some particles are released directly from a specific source, while others form in complicated chemical reac tions in the atmosphere, affecting people with respiratory and cardiovascular diseases.

“We found that Mumbai, Chandrapur, Navi Mumbai and Pune (in that order) have the highest annual average number of deaths caused by pollution-related diseases. In addition, cities having the highest annual number of hospital admissions due to respiratory and cardiovascular diseases include Mumbai, Chandrapur, Navi Mumbai, Pune and Solapur,“ said Kamal Jyoti Maji, researcher from the Center for Environmental Science and Engineering (CESE), IIT-B. Maji said high energy demand, large number of industries and increase in vehicles due to the rising population have created a situation where cities are facing major environmental challenges in air pollution.

“Thus, cities tend to be high risk areas where the human community becomes vulnerable to air pollution-induced unfavourable health impacts,“ he said.

During the study , the daily average ambient air pollution concentration for pollutants PM10, SO2 and NO2 from all monitoring stations in the 10 cities from 2004 to 2013 were ta ken into consideration.

The concentration of these pollutants are monitored and estimated by the Maharashtra Pollution Control Board (MPCB).

“The study showed that the highest number of total mortality (deaths) cases due to pollution-related diseases such as cancer, heart failure and COPD was recorded in 2011 in Pune. The highest number of such cases in Mumbai was recorded in 2006 and in Nagpur in 2007,“ Maji said.

Maji said that the incidence of pollution-related deaths and diseases due to pollution in Mumbai and Solapur has re duced because major industries there have moved to the outskirts during the decade studied.

“Pune, Nashik and Navi Mumbai are recording a sustained number of pollution related deaths and diseases over the years because there has been no improvement in air quality during these 10 years. The main cause of air pollution in Pune is the increasing number of vehicles, small industries, construction work and municipal solid waste burning,“ he said. Air pollution related mortality is calculated based on the epidemiological study conducted by the World Health Organization (WHO).

The organization has developed a software called AirQ through which it mathematized the relation between pollution concentration and morbidity. AirQ quantifies the health impact of air pollution in a given population.

The epidemiological study conducted by the World Health Organization (WHO).

The organization has developed a software called AirQ through which it mathematized the relation between pollution concentration and morbidity. AirQ quantifies the health impact of air pollution in a given population.

Source : TOI
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